DATA Collection And DATA Analysis MethodsDATA Collection And DATA Analysis Methods

▶Collection of facts, figures, and statistics that are used to inform, analyze, and make decisions is called Data.

▶It can be in the form of numbers, words, images, sounds, or videos.

▶Data can be quantitative (numerical) or qualitative (non-numerical).

Numbers: sales figures, temperatures, stock   prices

Text: customer feedback, social media posts, survey responses

Images: photos, videos, medical scans

Audio: voice recordings, podcasts

Other: sensor/ satellite readings, GPS locations, website traffic

-Identify patterns and trends

-Make predictions and forecasts

-Inform business decisions

-Evaluate performance and progress

▶Scientifically, data refers to a collection of quantitative (numerical) or qualitative (non-numerical) values that are obtained through observation, measurement, or experimentation.

▶These values are typically numerical or categorical in nature and are used to describe phenomena, patterns, or relationships.

Data is based on observation or measurement, rather than on intuition or assumption.

Data is collected in a structured and organized way, using a predetermined methodology.

Data can be represented by numbers or categories, allowing for statistical analysis and mathematical manipulation.

Data is intended to be free from personal biases and subjective interpretations.

Data can be checked and validated through repetition or cross-validation.

▶ Sensor readings from a laboratory instrument

▶ Survey responses from a population sample

▶ Gene expression levels from a biological experiment

▶ Climate patterns from satellite imagery

1.Cleaning and organizing the data for analysis (Data Preparation / Compilling)

2.Describing the data

3.Testing Hypotheses and Models

▶A set of mathematical procedures for describing, synthesizing, analyzing, and interpreting quantitative data.

▶The selection of an appropriate statistical technique is determined by the research design, Hypothesis, and the data collected.

▶Data must be accurately recorded and systematically organized to facilitate data analysis:

▶Tabulating: organizing the data in a systematic manner

▶Coding: assigning numerals (e.g., ID) to data

▶Data analysis is the process of finding the right data to answer your question,

▶Understanding the processes underlying the data,

▶Discovering the important patterns in the data,

▶and then communicating your results to have the biggest possible impact

indices (keywords/hints) calculated by the researcher for an entire population

indices calculated by the researcher for a sample drawn from a population

permit the researcher to describe many pieces of data with a few indices (tables/graphs/etc, T-test, T-test)

1. Graphs

representations of data enabling the researcher to see what the distribution of scores look like

2. Measures of central tendency

indices enabling the researcher to determine the typical or average score of a group of scores

3. Measures of variability

Mode / Median, Mean

Mode – the  value that occurs the most times

Median – the middle of the distribution, the number where half of the values are above and half are below

 Mean – average of all values of this variable in the data set

Range of values – from minimum value to maximum value

▶Coding – process of translating information gathered from questionnaires or other sources into something that can be analyzed

▶Involves assigning a value to the information given—often value is given a label

▶Coding can make data more consistent:

▶Example: Question = Sex

▶Answers = Male, Female, M, or F

▶Coding will avoid such inconsistencies

▶Common coding systems (code and label) for dichotomous variables:

▶             0=No  1=Yes  

  (1 = value assigned, Yes= label of value)

▶OR:  1=No  2=Yes

▶When you assign a value you must also make it clear what that value means

▶In first example above, 1=Yes but in second example 1=No

▶As long as it is clear how the data are coded, either is fine

▶You can make it clear by creating a data dictionary to accompany the dataset

Also read: Sampling and Sampling Methods By Dr. Ghazala Ali Khan

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